Q: I am 56 years old, healthy, have a reasonable job and presume I can work for the next 10 years.
I have a home which is worth about R2.5 million, with a relatively small bond. However, apart from an annuity worth about R300 000 I have no other savings.
My youngest child is almost independent, and in a couple of months time I will be able to save R10 000 per month. This amount can increase to R20 000 in the next 18 months.
How should I invest this money and how much trouble am I in?
The really important question here is the last one. In our view, any investor currently requires approximately R1 million for every R4 200 of monthly income they want before tax and after costs.
This yield is specifically constructed to provide an escalating income that keeps up with inflation. We are aware that an investor can source a fixed yield that is higher, but that would mean that it doesn’t increase in the future and progressively becomes worth less.
This also assumes that your capital will be maintained and over occasional periods will
Q: I am 39 years old and have worked for the public service for just over 11 years. I am considering resigning because I want to further my studies for the next three years.
My current retirement fund value is R947 113.
How much will they tax me if I take this out and how best can I invest it?
The short answer to your question is that you will be paying R191 820.51 tax on a retirement fund value of R947 113. In other words, 20.25% of your retirement benefit will be paid to the South African Revenue Service (Sars).
How this is calculated is that your capital will be taxed on a sliding scale. The first R25 000 is tax free, the next R635 000 will be taxed at 18% and the balance will be taxed at 27%. Although not relevant in this instance, any amount over R990 000 would be taxed at 36%.
However, you can avoid this tax entirely by transferring the benefit to a preservation fund. This is an option you should seriously consider.
A preservation fund works in the same way as a retirement
There is a view among many South African consumers that applying for a bond at more than one bank will have negative consequences. The belief is that these enquiries will impact on your credit score and therefore hurt your chances of getting a loan or push up its cost if you are successful.
Many people only apply at their own bank for just this reason. They think that they are taking a risk if they shop around.
This raises some obvious concerns. After all, you are only exercising your rights as a consumer to compare prices, so why should you be penalised for it?
What is a given is that every time you apply for a loan of any sort, this will be recorded on your credit profile. This is called footprinting, and credit providers may use this information to assess you.
“Credit providers consider a multitude of factors when vetting applications for credit, one of which would be demand for certain types of credit,” explains David Coleman, the head of analytics at Experian South Africa. “A sudden surge in demand for unsecured or short term credit, linked
Q: I have R100 000 in a unit trust. At the same time I have an outstanding bond. Would it be better to remove the funds from the Investment and offset part of the home loan?
Advisors are frequently asked this question. This often has more to do with personal risk preference than with economic rationality. To answer this question, however, certain assumptions must be made, and I specifically won’t look at tax to keep the answer succinct.
The rational answer
Let us assume that the interest rate on the bond is at the prime lending rate. That is currently 10.50%
The second assumption we need to make is about what the risk level of the unit trust in question is. A money market unit trust has a very different risk and associated return goal than an equity unit trust.
A low-risk money market or income fund aims to beat inflation and offer a real return of 1% per annum. Thus, if the R100 000 is in an income unit trust only yielding 7% to 8%, it would be rational to secure the higher guaranteed return of 10.5% and transfer the funds into the bond.
However, if the money is in a balanced fund which generally
Q: I will retire at the end of October 2016 from government service. I have the option of a retirement gratuity of R1.2 million plus a monthly pension of R 27 414 for life, or a resignation benefit of R5 047 648.
The downsides of taking the annuity option are that when I die the monthly pension that will go to my wife will halve; and that when she dies, the pension stops altogether and nothing will go to our children. I’m also worried by the current political landscape in South Africa whether I can have peace of mind with regard to how the GEPF will be managed in future.
My question is this: If I rather take the resignation benefit of R5 047 648, can I obtain a monthly income comparable to the monthly pension of R27 000 plus the yield on the investment of the R1.2 million gratuity through investing this amount?
The reader belongs to the Government Employees Pension Fund (GEPF), which is what is called a defined benefit fund. The retirement benefits are therefore defined with regard to the reader’s salary at retirement and the length of service at their employer.
Let us consider the two options that the reader
Traditionally, the focus of every financial plan was retirement. Everything was built around the day that you have to leave formal employment at the age of 60 or 65.
However, more and more people are having to ask what happens next. In a time when life expectancy is steadily increasing, the idea of throwing away your briefcase and putting your feet up to live out your ‘golden years’ in peace and quiet is looking increasingly less appealing, and less practical.
For a start, there is little point in retiring ‘to do nothing’. Many retirees find that they are actually busier than they were during the working lives, but the difference is that they can do what they enjoy.
“We are finding more and more people who are re-thinking retirement,” says Kirsty Scully from CoreWealth Managers. “In most cases, they have been professionals in their careers and they want to stay employed to continue with their personal and professional growth and development, yet they don’t want a typical work schedule. They are looking for flexible working arrangements so as to have a good balance between work and leisure.”
Wouter Dalhouzie from Verso Wealth says that from both a mental and physical well-being point of view,
In the wake of the #DataMustFall campaign, it seems that the data revolution might have a valid and legitimate plea. The campaign founders made a presentation before the Parliamentary Communications and Postal Committee on September 21 on the costs of data in the country. According to the soon-to-be launched findings of the FinScope South Africa 2016 consumer survey, the results show that the average South African spends about 9% of their purse on airtime and data recharge, cellphone contracts, telephone lines and internet payments. The average person spends approximately R700 a month for communication-related expenses.
Parallel to the #DataMustFall campaign, which is gaining traction, is the #FeesMustFall (reloaded) campaign, which is also resurfacing in light of the announcement of an up to 8% fee increase made by the Higher Education Minister Blade Nzimande. While university students would like to see a 0% increase, universities are requesting increases to sustain operations and fund research.
Therefore, in light of these developments and expenses, how does the purse of the South African consumer fair? The preliminary results of the FinScope 2016 survey shows that South Africans spend R688 per month on average on education.
The FinScope findings further show that South Africa’s total personal monthly consumption (PMC) expenditure
Q: I would like to start saving for a second motor vehicle. My current car is paid off and still in very good condition, so I don’t think I will need to replace it within the next five years.
I would therefore like to save the money that I was paying towards my monthly instalments to eventually buy a second motor vehicle for cash. Therefore, my savings term would be at least five years.
I have a money market fund with Allan Gray at the moment, but I find it difficult not to use these savings for other larger expenses. I would therefore prefer to use something that does not allow immediate and easy access to my savings. What would be best for this purpose?
The first step one should take is to identify the investment objective. In this case that is a car, with an assumed cost of R300 000 at the end of a five-year term horizon. It is important to understand this time horizon as well as your appetite for risk to decide on the most suitable investment vehicle.
Some of the most popular after-tax investment vehicles include endowments, unit trusts and the tax free savings accounts. These vary in terms of
In this advice column, Wendy Foley from Citadel answers questions from a reader who is selling a house that he was renting out.
Q: I bought a house in Pretoria in December 2011 for around R1.1 million. I lived there until October 2013 but then moved to Johannesburg and decided to rent it out.
I did not buy a new place in Johannesburg as I intended to move back to Pretoria eventually. With the monthly rental income I received on my Pretoria property, I paid rates and levies of around R2 000 per month, although I did not pay any municipal rates.
In time, I realised that I was not going to move back to Pretoria again and decided in February 2015 that I wanted to sell my house and found a buyer for it.
My questions relate to how all of this should be reflected in my tax return.
For the last two years I have included the rental income in my return, whilst deducting items such as interest and levies. I paid the full outstanding municipal rates of around R30 000 when I sold my house in June 2015. For the 2016 tax year, can I deduct all of the rates for the
Relative to its peers in the SADC region, South Africa has a high percentage of people with formal bank accounts. While 94% of the adult population in the Seychelles has a bank account, and 85% do so in Mauritius, South Africa’s banked adult population stands at 77%.
This contrasts starkly with the likes of Madagascar or the Democratic Republic of Congo, where only 12% of adults have bank accounts. In Angola, the ratio is 20%.
These are figures produced by the Finmark Trust, an organisation set up more than a decade ago to promote financial inclusion. And at face value, they may appear to suggest that South Africa is measuring up reasonably well.
However, the Trusts’s Dr Prega Ramsamy says that there is a lot more to financial inclusion than whether or not someone has a bank account.
“It’s a multi-dimensional problem,” he told the Actuarial Society 2016 Convention in Cape Town. “There is an element of access, but there is also an element of affordability, an element of proximity, and most importantly an element of quality. We might have huge access in terms of people having bank accounts, but it doesn’t necessarily mean that they are financially included because the quality of such
Old Mutual Investment Group sees domestic equities, property and bonds delivering higher returns in 2017, on the back of improving economic prospects.
It expects peaking interest rates and inflation in South Africa to create a positive environment for interest rate sensitive assets such as domestic property and bonds. It sees inflation averaging at 5.4% in 2017 compared with 6.3% in 2016 and the benchmark repurchase rates falling to 6.5% by the end of 2017, down from 7% currently.
According to Peter Brooke, head of Old Mutual Investment Group’s MacroSolutions Boutique the 13.5% return on domestic bonds year-to-date as at November 24 2016 is artificially high due to an oversold bond market.
Instead, he said SA cash – with a 6.8% return in rand terms – is the best performing local asset class thus far. SA listed property delivered returns of 4% and the FTSE-JSE Share Weighted Index (SWIX) returned 2.5% over the same period.
After starting the year with the highest level of cash in its fund ever, the group is seeing more opportunities in equities as the domestic equity market de-rates.
“We’re not at the stage where the JSE is cheap yet. It is on a 13x forward but it does offer a real
In South Africa’s somewhat peculiar banking system, monthly charges for transactional accounts are a given. But is the few hundred rand you’re paying per month (if you’re lucky!) the best possible deal?
The first question you need to answer is whether you value having a ‘platinum’ or ‘private clients’ account with all the “value-adds” these offer?
Things like lounge access, bundled credit cards and a ‘personal’ banker are must-haves for some in the upper middle market. On the other end of the scale are basic, no-frills bank accounts (like Capitec’s Global One (and the clones from the other major banks)), but the truth is that most people need something a little more comprehensive than that. There’s likely a home loan, almost certainly vehicle finance and definitely a credit card.
So, do you need a ‘platinum’ (Premier/Prestige/Savvy Bundle)-type account? Do you actually use or need those value-adds? Or, do you enjoy the ‘status’ of having a platinum or black credit card? (Here, emotion – and ego – comes into the equation….)
This is an important question to answer, because the difference in bank charges between a more vanilla bundle account and ‘platinum’ is easily 50%!
While banks try to shoehorn you into product categories based on
- Prepare an itemised list of all your expenses and divide the expenses into Group A, being fixed expenses, such as car repayments, other debts and payments you are contractually bound to pay monthly. Other discretionary expenses you are able to reduce or even cancel without suffering any negative legal or financial consequences such as entertainment, clothing, cable TV should be included in a Group B.Select certain Group B expenses you wish to reduce or stop [that gym subscription?), do so and allocate extra payments to shorten the outstanding payment periods (and reduce the interest payable) of Group A expenses or start a small rainy day account for those unexpected financial surprises. Which expenses should be reduced and in what order of priority will depend upon circumstances such as interest rates, tax deductibility, outstanding payment periods and so on. Always a good idea to consult a professional to assist you in making the correct decision.
- Make an appointment with your financial planner to verify whether your life, disability, dread disease and accident benefits are adequate or surplus to your needs and whether recent product developments have resulted in more cost efficient and/or comprehensive cover being available at the same or at a
With the start of 2017 looming, many parents may have started to consider the cost of their children’s school and tuition fees for the next school year. While families have a number of financial commitments to attend to every month, this is the time of year where school funds are often moved to the top priority to ensure that the family is financially prepared for the expenses that accompany a new school year.
Saving for a child’s education requires careful consideration and proper planning.
Here are some tips below for parents to ensure that they have planned appropriately for their children’s education costs:
Parents should start saving for their children’s education as soon as they possibly can. Many people do not consider, or are not aware of, the great advantages of compound interest, and how accumulated savings grow over several years when invested properly. By investing from an early age, parents will eliminate the financial worry of not having sufficient funds to give their children the best education possible, as the funds in their investment will grow every year.
The best way for parents to ensure they are regularly contributing towards their children’s education is to open a dedicated savings account and
This time of year sees both children and adults preparing their wish-lists for the upcoming festive season. But as many South Africans continue to grapple with rising debt, now is a good time to shift the focus from giving material items to providing future financial well-being.
Giving a child an investment as a gift will not only promote a culture of saving from a young age, but will also show them how you can make money grow.
There’s a powerful story of one customer’s commitment to leave a legacy for his family, and the value of sound financial advice. In November 1968, a customer made an initial deposit of R400 into the Old Mutual Investors’ Fund and 48 years later, his investment is today worth over R600 000.
More precious than the value of his money, however, was the culture of saving and the legacy that he passed on to his children and grandchildren. On special occasions such as Christmas and birthdays, he invested a set amount of money on his children’s or grandchildren’s behalf. With this investment, his daughter was able to provide for her daughter’s schooling.
If South Africa is to develop a generation of financially savvy adults, it is crucial to not just talk
Remuneration practices have far-reaching consequences, not only for individuals and companies but for the economy as a whole.
Employees’ personal finances for the most part, depend on their salaries. These salaries allow them to procure goods and services which stimulate the economy and ultimately form the life blood of the economy. These salaries, however, cannot simply be raised indefinitely in a bid to stimulate the economy (through increased demand), as the cost associated with these increased salaries will cause the cost of goods and services to rise (inflation). As a result, individuals would still only be able to purchase the same basket of goods as they did before, despite the increased salaries.
Employee remuneration is more often than not, the largest percentage of a company’s total expenditure. As a result, firms are highly concerned with their pay practices as they impact on their financial bottom line.
The pay practices of public (municipalities and State-owned enterprises (SoE)) and private sector firms differ significantly, particularly at the lower levels. According to 21st Century’s salary database, Table 1 shows the pay practices of the public and private sector at each occupational level.
Executives have been left out of the analysis as the remuneration structure of private sector
A marketing and sales team purporting to represent Old Mutual Financial Services has re-emerged and is offering fraudulent loans to the public at 5% interest in an effort to get hold of personal details and solicit upfront payment for the release of loans.
This type of phishing scam has become popular over the last few years, with fraudsters using the name of well-known, credible organisations to gain legitimacy. Moneyweb’s name was previously illegally linked to a similar loan scheme offered by “Moneyweb Private Banking South Africa”.
In November last year, the Financial Services Board (FSB) issued a warning against a scam called Skeme Finance Group which requested an “enclosure fee” from individuals before a loan could be granted. To pacify individuals getting wind of the con, the scheme issued a fraudulent letter using the FSB’s logo and a picture of the deputy registrar of financial services providers, Caroline da Silva.
Consumers are lured with promises of very low interest rates – typically no more than 5% per annum. Interest rates on personal loans at most banks generally range from 13% to 28% per annum. This makes the offer “too good to be true”, often the first warning sign that something fishy is afoot.
Over the last few years government has collected a significant amount of tax revenue by not fully adjusting the personal income tax tables for inflationary increases in earnings, thereby increasing the effective tax rate of individuals.
A middle-class individual earning a taxable income of R400 000 per annum in the 2016 year of assessment, would have seen her after-tax income increase by only 5.42% and 5.05% in the 2017 and 2018 tax years respectively, even if her taxable income increased by 6% every year.
During his most recent budget speech, finance minister Pravin Gordhan collected more than R12 billion of the R28 billion in additional taxes he needed from the personal income tax system in this way.
In a similar fashion, taxpayers may now become liable for capital gains tax (CGT) purely because three of the exclusions have not been adjusted for the effects of inflation since March 1 2012.
1. The primary residence exclusion
When taxpayers sell their primary residence and realise a capital gain on the transaction, an exclusion of R2 million applies.
Louis van Vuren, CEO of the Fiduciary Institute of Southern Africa (Fisa), says if the exclusion was adjusted for inflation over the past five years, it would have increased to around
The death of a spouse, friend or relative is often an emotional time even before estate matters are addressed.
And truth be told, death can be an expensive and cumbersome affair, particularly if estate planning was neglected, the claims against the estate start accumulating and there isn’t sufficient cash to settle outstanding debts.
People generally underestimate the costs related to death, says Ronel Williams, chairperson of the Fiduciary Institute of Southern African (Fisa). Most individuals have a fairly good grasp of significant expenses like a mortgage bond that would have to be settled, but the smaller fees can also add up.
To avoid a situation where valuable assets have to be sold to settle outstanding debts, it is important to do proper planning and take out life and/or bond insurance to ensure sufficient cash is available, she notes.
The costs involved in an estate can broadly be classified as administration costs and claims against the estate. The administration costs are incurred after death as a result of the death. Claims against the estate are those the deceased was liable for at the time of death, the notable exception being tax, Williams explains.
Administration costs as well as most claims against the estate will generally need
People often draft a will with the best intentions, and even though the document may be technically sound, emotional decisions can have far-reaching consequences for the beneficiaries. They may even result in potential delays when winding up the estate.
To discuss the feelings or sentiments that could derail your estate planning, I’m joined by the CEO of the Fiduciary Institute of Southern Africa, Louis van Vuren. Louis, I’d like to discuss each of these emotions in some detail, but let’s unpack the issues first. What has been your experience? What are the five emotional issues that may create problems when winding up an estate?
LOUIS VAN VUREN: Ingé, firstly the desire to control – even after your death. Then also the desire to keep the peace – specifically in difficult family circumstances. Then there is also sympathy with struggling children, trying to look after your struggling children after your death, sometimes at the expense of other considerations. Feelings of guilt, or what I sometimes call debts of honour, when people feel they want to set the record straight or set things right in the will that they haven’t got round to during their lifetime. And then lastly feelings of superiority, whether it’s